Pain does not always occur in one area of the body. Often, when one area is affected, others follow suit—or some conditions affect multiple areas at one time.
Chronic Pain —
Chronic pain persists over the course of weeks, months and even years. Usually, it is diagnosed as lasting longer than three months, but the duration of expected pain often depends upon the condition or injury. Chronic pain lasting longer than expected may be mild, moderate or severe and occur constantly or sporadically. Common areas affected by chronic pain are the joints, back, head, neck, shoulders and pelvis.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) —
CRPS is chronic pain that typically develops after some sort of injury trauma or surgery. It typically affects parts of or entire extremities. It is rare and not fully understood - the pain frequently disproportionate to the severity of the initial cause. Also referred to as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), it seems to affect the balance of the vegetative nervous system (parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system), that usually is in charge to regulate blood flow, temperature, but also pain mediation in the body, including the extremities. Symptoms include burning or throbbing pain, swelling, sensitivity to hot and cold, changes in skin color, temperature and texture, muscle spasms, joint stiffness and swelling and decreased mobility.
Peripheral Neuropathy –
Neuropathy is damage to the small peripheral nerve fibers. Damage to these nerve fibers seems oxidative stress caused by prolonged complications of diabetes or eg chemotherapy. Peripheral Neuropathy results in numbness, loss of sensation and sometimes pain in the feet, legs or hands. Once damaged, the nerves in the extremities cannot correctly carry messages from the brain to other parts of the body. Therefore, one may not feel heat, cold or pain, yet have intense sensations of “pins and needles” mostly in the hands and feet.
Post Herpetic (Shingles) Neuralgia —
Shingles are part of the Herpes Virus Family that prefers to live and survive in nerves. When it comes to an outbreak, it can cause intense pain along with rash and blisters. Once the acute phase has settled, pain in the affected nerve fibers can still last for months or even years due to residual stimulation to the nerves.